By G. E. Russell
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Extra info for Plant Breeding for Pest and Disease Resistance. Studies in the Agricultural and Food Sciences
1974). Sporulation of Puccinia striiformis on nine winter wheat varieties at different growth stages. F. ( 1971). Tolerance to plant disease. J. and WEBSTER, J. (1977). Critique of the chitin technique for estimation of fungal biomass. M. F. M. (1972). A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases. 3rd Edn. Longman, London (1954). Recent studies of wheat stem rust in relation to breeding resistant varieties. Phytopathology 44, 346 STUBBS (1968). Differences in reaction to Puccinia striiformis between first and second leaves in wheat crosses.
General principles and methods of breeding for resistance 27 advantage, but they are very widely employed because they are usually more reliable and easier to carry out. Many methods have been developed for artificially inoculating plants with pests and pathogens, the most appropriate method for a particular parasite depending on how it is disseminated and its particular environmental requirements. Some general principles concerning inoculation methods for use with different groups of pests and pathogens are outlined below.
The work of Williams et al. (1967), Singleton and Young (1968) and Scott and Maclean (1969) has shown 50 Pathogenic fungi and fungal diseases that certain rust fungi can be cultured on artificial media; strictly speaking, therefore, these pathogens should be considered no longer as obligate parasites. Other pathogens, which today are classed as obligate parasites, will doubtless also be cultured artificially in the future. Nevertheless, outside the laboratory these fungi occur only on living plants; the distinction between biotrophs and necrotrophs therefore remains valid and is of crucial importance in breeding for resistance to fungal diseases.
Plant Breeding for Pest and Disease Resistance. Studies in the Agricultural and Food Sciences by G. E. Russell