By Chen Ru;Zhang Qiwang
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Additional info for Advanced Spoken Chinese: v. 1
Four of the hypotheses will include various sub-hypotheses. The type of variables involved in each hypothesis will determine the bivariate tests we will apply. As our data consists of nominal, ordinal and interval/ratio variables, we will make use of χ2 (chi-square), gamma (γ), independent t, ANOVA (analysis of variance) and Pearson tests. While the relationship between the involved variables is tested in χ2 and Pearson tests, the independent t-test and the ANOVA test the differences between variables.
However, he also notes that the L1 exerts a stronger influence on the acquisition of English in the early stages of learning than in the later stages. In fact, it appears that while the L1 has great influence in the early stages, no differences in English proficiency are found amongst university students on account of their L1, although this observation is based on reports by university staff rather than an actual investigation. Concerning the differences for the two language learner groups, Ringbom concludes that: The difference between learning a related and an unrelated language is primarily a difference between much overt cross-linguistic influence based on perceived similarities vs.
Bialystok, 2001: 133) In other words, language use begins to involve more metalinguistic knowledge as the demands for analysis increase and language use begins to involve more metalinguistic ability and metalinguistic awareness as the demands for control increase. According to Bialystok (1991), proficiency in two languages results in increasing levels of analysis and control such that solving increasingly demanding problems becomes possible: The very experience of learning to read in a second language, to switch languages when addressing different speakers, to have completely different systems for expressing such notions as past tense, bestow upon the bilingual child the opportunity to make rapid advances in their mastery of the two processing components that underlie all language use across the domains.
Advanced Spoken Chinese: v. 1 by Chen Ru;Zhang Qiwang