By Ranko Matasović
This grammar could be used with a few warning, not just since it was once written through a linguist who's faraway from being a fluent speaker of Kabardian. it truly is mostly compilatory in nature, and lots of examples have been drawn from the present works on Kabardian by way of M. L. Abitov, Mukhadin Kumakhov, and others. even if, i've got additionally excerpted and analyzed many sentences from the literature, specifically from the Nart corpus (Nārtxar, 1951, Nārtxar, 2001), and a few examples have been elicited from local audio system. even if i've got relied seriously at the released scholarly works on Kabardian, my interpretations of the information are often very various from these within the to be had literature. i've got attempted to technique the Kabardian language from a typological perspective, evaluating its linguistic gains, that can look unusual to audio system of Indo-European languages, to related positive factors present in different languages of the area.
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Additional resources for A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian)
Pś'ək'wəz "eleven", pś'ək'wət' "twelve", pśək'wəś "thirteen", etc. The tens are formed on a decimal base, with the numeral "ten" reduced to -ś': t'waś' "twenty", śaś "thirty", pł'əś' "forty", txwəś' "fifty", xəś' "sixty", etc. There are traces of the vigesimal system, manifested in the formation of tens as products of multiplication of the number twenty, t'waś': t'waś'-yə-t' "forty", t'waś-yə-ś "sixty", etc. g. Besleney) and in Adyghe. -three-and "thirty three men" Ordinal numbers: япэ yāpа 1. еханэ yaxāna 6.
Poss. -neg. -af. -af. -3-NOM "And, after avoiding one another, the three brothers met on the hill" REFLEXIVITY Kabardian does not have reflexive pronouns; reflexivity is expressed by the verbal prefix za-/zə-/z-, which indicates that the subject of the action is the same as the object; from the historical point of view, this is the same prefix as the basic reciprocal prefix. Reciprocity and reflexivity are in many languages semantically and morphologically related, cf. the Croatian verbs tući se (= to hit oneself or to hit each other), gledati se (= to look at oneself or to look at each other).
Af. , in Haka-Lai, a Tibeto-Burman language (Peterson 2007). However, the difference lies in the fact that the adding of the conjunctivity prefix does not affect the transitivity of a verb, as is clear from case marking and the shape of the person markers. A related conjunctivity (comitative) prefix exists in Abkhaz (-c(ə)-). The conjunctivity/comitative applicative construction should be distinguished from the incorporation of the adverbial prefix -zəda-, -zada- "together". In Russian, this is sometimes referred to as the category of "togetherness" (sovmestnost').
A Short Grammar of East Circassian (Kabardian) by Ranko Matasović