This crucial heart English textbook, now in its 3rd variation, introduces scholars to the big variety of literature written in England among 1150 and 1400.
New, completely revised variation of this crucial heart English textbook.
Introduces the language of the time, giving information on pronunciation, spelling, grammar, metre, vocabulary and local dialects.
Now contains extracts from ‘Pearl’ and Chaucer’s ‘Troilus and Criseyde’.
Bibliographic references were up to date throughout.
Each textual content is observed via distinct notes.
Read or Download A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition) PDF
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Extra resources for A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)
With the falling together of unstressed vowels, the whole variety of inﬂexional endings was reduced to -e, -es, -en and -ene. In practice only those forms ending in a consonant, -es and -en, were sharply distinctive, and therefore they were useful as grammatical markers, to indicate possession and to distinguish the plural. The ending -es was the marker of the genitive singular of the Old English strong masculine nouns; it was the most distinctive of all the endings in the singular, and in Middle English it became generalized to serve as the ending for the genitive of the great majority of nouns, and indeed the only singular inﬂexion that regularly survived.
Havekes, ‘hawk’s’, 2/271; Drihtenes, ‘God’s’, 3/23; helle, ‘of hell’, 4/34. from Ke li4te, ‘from the light’, 2/198; to ArGure, ‘to Arthur’, 3/1; on his steden, ‘on his horse’, 3/25; in helle, ‘in hell’, 4/41; but wiG 4elp, ‘with boasting’, 4/2. tide, ‘hours’, 2/26 (OE pl. tCda); crowe, ‘crows’, 2/304 (OE crAwan); wepnen, ‘weapons’, 3/52 (OE wRpen); hundes, ‘dogs’, 3/115 (OE hundas); deoﬂen, ‘devils’, 4/32 (OE dBoﬂas). wise, ‘of ways’, 2/20; kingen, ‘of kings’, 3/113; Ancrene Wisse, ‘Anchoresses’ Guide’, 4/title (uninﬂected form Ancre).
This survival of the Old English pattern is exceptional, and other texts have the mutated form only in the plural. The genitive plural is elsewhere usually men(ne)s, but note men hacches, ‘men’s kitchen-doors’, 7a/29, and bondemen barnes, ‘villeins’ children’, 7a/70. ABOP1C04 23 8/5/04, 9:22 AM 24 Inﬂexions Other nouns of this type are: singular fot, ‘foot’ gos, ‘goose’ mous, ‘mouse’ tok, ‘tooth’ plural fet ges mys (mus 2/87) tek BroKer had the plural breKer, 9/39, but in the South an additional -en plural was often added, as in bretherne, 7b/217, whence Modern English ‘brethren’.
A Book of Middle English (3rd Edition)